3300 BC) show evidence of teeth having been drilled dating back 9,000 years. Contents, definitions edit, surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. For example, hypothermia is a necessity for cardiopulmonary bypassRead more
Edward Acton, Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. As they exited, they were taunted by Leon Trotsky who told them "You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role isRead more
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Chemistry in depth
Low pH Buffer facts about minerals/electrolytes AND calcium; All. Reference: membrane permeability, calcium, AND osmotic pressure. To adding back to exiles by Carolyn Steedman the aquarium after a water change. Nist Chemistry WebBook - Physical data (thermochemical, thermophysical, and ion energetics) for mostly organic compounds. Here are a few possible problems that cause pH/KH drops to look into : (Please note that these problems are often interrelated *Too high of DOC (dissolved organic compounds) caused by organic debris/mulm, high fish loads, etc.
However when common sense logic is applied, if you are using an RO unit such as the AAP/TMC that applies the features already noted, you will get basically 0 nitrates, 0 phosphates, and 0 chlorine/chloramines and NOT get the concentrated ammonia or other molecules due. Product Resource: Original/Unique Wonder Shells Closed Aquarium Environment; An aspect that GH Calcium with Amazon River/ SE Asia Water that is missed by many (as per my email and other conversations) is that while the Amazon River may be a very low GH, this. For a good explanation of the process of osmosis, go to this site: m/osmosis/ Therefore, a stronger solution is not necessarily a better one because it encourages a flow of water from the cells to the extra-cellular environment. The fact is aquarium keeping is a science and every tank is unique for a multitude of reasons and hopefully with a reading (or maybe 2 or 3 readings) of this article you will understand how best to keep your aquarium. Quinton Serum, hypertonic: If the salt(s) concentration is more than 9 then ocean water is hypertonic. So, Isotonic seawater has 9 (per mil) salts in solution.
Chemical information is in the early stages of a revolution.
Long dominated by a handful of established players, the field has rather suddenly opened up to a variety of innovative newcomers.
The chemistry of fertilisers, In - Depth Analysis of Art,
I have successfully used sources of calcium such as Wonder Shells (usually at 1/4 -1/2 dose in discus aquariums by using a mix of RO (Reverse Osmosis) water and tap water (dilution will vary depending on your tap and tank water parameters). The difference in the most simple terms is water in SE Asia or the Amazon is softened naturally by tannins in peat, etc. Ditto if you use tap/well water that is much higher in pH/KH than your aquarium water. These waters are softened by tannins, not the use of sodium or potassium to drive out all other minerals via precipitation. Fish can adapt to different pH, however most fish are NOT tolerant to wide swings. Where this quintessential disruptive technology and its offspring end up taking chemical publishing is unclear, but the ride will be spectacular. TDS, before I delve too much into GH, let me touch on the the term "TDS" which is simply "Total Dissolved Solids tDS measures conductivity and pretty much everything that is in the water. I was unable to determine how to submit a substructure search through the Marvin applet on my Linux system (there is no "Search" button, for example). For this reason, this is why I have achieved better results with full or partial RO water use along with Replenish Alkaline Buffer initially followed with a regular 1/4 to 1/2 normal dose of Wonder Shell over products such as Equalibrium in an Amazon River. October 12, 2011: An updated version of this post is available.
Aquarium Chemistry; The Most IN depth internet article on the subject of pH, GH,. The need for positive mineral ions such as calcium. Freshwater or marine aquariums.