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The Fall of Constantinople
penetrate the chain and boom across the Golden Horn. In addition, he possessed a large cannon made by the founder Orban as well as several smaller guns. Romanos, although, as he had discarded any indications of his status to avoid his body being used as a trophy, his demise is not known for certain. The Byzantine emperor at the time of the attack was Constantine XI (r. Anticipating this approach, the Byzantine engineer Johannes Grant led a vigorous countermining effort which intercepted the first Ottoman mine on May. It has even been theorized that when Constantinople fell, the unique mixture of Greek, Roman, Judaic, and Arab knowledge traveled westward into Europe, thus lending a spark to the European Renaissance. Among these were 700 professional soldiers under the command of Giovanni Giustiniani.
Fall of Constantinople - Wikipedia
The Fall of Winter Palace, Downfall of Enron, Catcher in the Rye and The Fall,
By the time of the siege of Constantinople, the Turks had conquered all of Anatolia as well as a significant portion of the Balkans to the North. According to Georges Sphrantzes, the Ottoman army numbered 200,000 men, but modern historians prefer a more realistic figure of 60-80,000. Urban then peddled his expertise to the Sultan, and Mehmed showed more interest and offered him four times what he was asking. The Ottomans then built a pontoon and fixed cannons to it so that they could now attack any part of the city from the sea side, not just the land. Although the city suffered many attacks, prolonged sieges, internal rebellions, and even a period of occupation in the 13th century CE by the Fourth Crusaders, its legendary defences were the most formidable in both the ancient and medieval worlds.