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Manned Space Missions to Mars
coated in hardened lava. Features called recurring slope lineae may have spurts of briny water flowing on the surface, but this evidence is disputed; some scientists argue the hydrogen spotted from orbit in this region may instead indicate briny salts. "Mission design options for human Mars missions". . 37 Over the last century, a number of mission concepts for such an expedition have been proposed. 54 They proposed a crew of 8 traveling to Mars in a nuclear-powered vessel with artificial gravity provided by rotation. In the late 1950s, rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States stimulated a national priority to send humans to the Moon. fast mars transfers through ON-orbit staging. The entire mission is to be filmed and broadcast as a media event. The One-Way Trip Option (2006 Mars to Stay (2006) Main article: Mars to Stay The idea of a one-way trip to Mars has been proposed several times. It took the first close-up pictures of the Martian surface but found no strong evidence for life. 30 Planetary protection See also: Planetary protection Robotic spacecraft to Mars are required to be sterilized, to have at most 300,000 spores on the exterior of the craftand more thoroughly sterilized if they contact "special regions" containing water, 31 32 as otherwise there.
Additional resources Related: Learn more about the planets. "Radiation Will Make Astronauts' Trip to Mars Even Riskier". Citation needed In late 2011, Russian and European space agencies successfully completed the ground-based mars-500. 81 The biomedical experiment simulating manned flight to Mars was completed in Russia in July 2000. Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX, has outlined a Mars mission architecture to eventually build a million-person Martian city. This has been overcome in stages, with major global surveys done by Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 orbiters, which supported the Viking landers finding a suitable landing site. Meyer, 1997 ( isbn ). Martian Frontier (20072011) Mars 500, the longest high fidelity spaceflight simulation, ran from 2007 to 2011 in Russia and was an experiment to assess the feasibility of manned missions to Mars. 137 Sample return plans raise the concern, however remote, that an infectious agent could be brought to Earth. Supplies and fuel would have to be prepared for a 2-3 year round trip and the spacecraft would need at least partial shielding from ionizing radiation. 33 It is impossible to sterilize human missions to this level, as humans are host to typically a hundred trillion microorganisms of thousands of species of the human microbiota, and these cannot be removed while preserving the life of the human.
Favorable opportunities for Mars-bound ships to leave Earths orbit are also limited. 40 Willy Ley popularized a similar mission in English in the book The Conquest of Space (1949 featuring illustrations by Chesley Bonestell.